Atopic dermatitis usually occurs for persons of four groups of age: very typical for 3–24 months children (affects 5–10%), from 6 to 16 years, at the beginning of the working-age and for the persons older than 60 years of age. Weakening barrier of epidermis is probably the main reason. This is mostly resulted by changes of filaggrin, epidermal structural protein, mutations, and the epidermal lipid layer, which is the basis for the barrier and affects keratinocyte differentiation. The skin becomes easily irritated and dry. Another key aspect – impaired innate immunity. For the patients suffering from atopic diseases on the epidermis and in sweat less defensins are produced, which fight bacteria, fungi and viruses.
Infants and small children. Children from 3 months can begin to scratch intensely an itchy skin – thus on the head forms a thick layer of furfures (yellowish colour oily dandruff, Eng. “cradle cap”). Subsequently may develop exudative dermatitis with urticarial rash, furfures, dandruff, exfoliate, excoriation, usually on the head and limbs. Swaddling-clothes dermatitis is very common. It often begins with superinfection, therefore a combined anti-inflammatory and (or) antimicrobial treatment is necessary.
School age and adolescence. For children predisposing to atopic diseases skin blush occurs again, for this time at the places of flexures, although it can develop a disease of general nature of general illness. Initially affections are erythematous papules and vesicles, afterwards a chronic dermatitis develops very quickly, occur excoriation and gets lichenification. Typical areas – elbow joint, back of knees, neck. Additional problems are caused by superinfections. Sometimes they disappear spontaneously during puberty. Patients who are affected by atopic diseases, all life are sensitive to irritant substances. Therefore, they have to know how to protect against possible impact of toxic substances. They need to be constantly consulted on skin care issues, especially if they choose a profession (cosmetologists, machinists or employees in the field of health care) raising a serious risk.